Download E-books The Grammar of Words: An Introduction to Linguistic Morphology (Oxford Textbooks in Linguistics) PDF

Geert Booij's well known textbook examines how phrases are shaped, compounded, and inflected in numerous languages. It exhibits how, while, and why to exploit equipment of morphological research and explains how morphology pertains to syntax, phonology, and semantics. the writer considers the common features of morphology and the way those are mirrored within the workings of brain. The revised version has been revised and up-to-date all through; it has a whole thesaurus and a brand new bankruptcy at the field's such a lot infamous challenge: the prestige of the word.

'The Grammar of phrases by way of Geert Booij covers a vast variety of subject matters from structural inquiries to psycholinguistic concerns and difficulties of language switch. This creation to morphology is thorough and obtainable and, like different works via this popular writer, specially powerful at exhibiting the importance of empirical evidence for theoretical reasoning.' Ingo Plag, college of Siegen

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The inverse state of affairs, no overt marking for plurals, and overt marking for singular types can be came across. quantity marking on nouns, even if essentially a case of inherent inXection, can also be required through a speciWc syntactic context, specifically together with quantity names. In English we needs to use the plural kind of nouns after quantity names better than 1. In Finnish and Hungarian, nonetheless, the singular type of a noun is needed after such quantity names. via contract, quantity is additionally marked on phrases of alternative notice periods similar to adjectives, determiners, and verbs, as mentioned in part five. 2. this sort of quantity marking is to be exclusive from inherent 128 inflection marking of quantity on verbs used to precise the plurality of the development denoted via the verbs, or the variety of individuals concerned. the next examples are from Ngiti (Kutsch Lojenga 1994: 285, transcription simpliWed): (5) ma m-i indri nadha 1sg sc-aux goat pull. nom1 ‘‘I am pulling one goat, or a gaggle of goats simultaneously’’ ma m-i indri nudha 1sg sc-aux goat pull. pl. nom1 ‘‘I am pulling numerous goats one through one’’ (The plural verbal shape right here diVers from the unmarked shape by way of having a diVerent vowel. ) This plural verbal shape denotes that the motion occurs multiple time. In languages with diVerent inXectional periods reminiscent of Latin (see bankruptcy five, instance 9), quantity and case obtain diVerent morphological markings depending on the inXectional category to which a noun belongs. this is often additionally illustrated by way of the inXectional paradigms of a few Icelandic nouns of sophistication I (the default classification) in desk 6. 1. In those paradigms, 3 classiWcations of nouns are taken with computing the shape for every number–case blend: the excellence among vulnerable and robust nouns, gender, and arbitrary classification markers. The phrases in desk 6. 1 are all category I nouns, yet there are 3 desk 6. 1. InXection of Icelandic category I nouns masculine female neuter powerful vulnerable powerful susceptible robust vulnerable ‘‘horse’’ ‘‘time’’ ‘‘needle’’ ‘‘tongue’’ ‘‘table’’ ‘‘eye’’ singular nom acc dat gen hest-ur hest hest-i hest-s tı´m-i tı´m-a tı´m-a tı´m-a na´l na´l na´l na´l-ar tung-a tung-u tung-u tung-u borð borð borð-i borð-s aug-a aug-a aug-a aug-a plural nom acc dat gen hest-ar hest-a hest-um hest-a tı´m-ar tı´m-a tı´m-um tı´m-a na´l-ar na´l-ar na´l-um na´l-a tung-ur tung-ur tung-um tung-na borð borð borð-um borð-a aug-u aug-u aug-um aug-na resource: Thra´insson 1994: 153. inflectional structures 129 different sessions (for non-neuter nouns purely) and a few abnormal nouns. The phonological type of a noun might help to figure out the (sub)class of a noun. for example, if the nom. sg type of a masculine noun leads to -i (as in timi ‘‘time’’), it usually follows the vulnerable inXection development. a more in-depth examine the paradigms in desk 6. 1 will display that the variety of diVerences among the paradigms of Icelandic type I nouns is particular. for example, the dative plural marker is usually -um, and the genitive plural regularly results in -a (with an extra n in tung-na and aug-na).

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