By Heidi I. Köppl
Esoteric Tibetan Buddhist scriptures train practitioners to imagine themselves as deities living inside of a mandala. by means of doing so, they assert, the practitioner will finally turn into the deity itself. yet are sentient beings instrinsically natural, or does visualization perform cause them to natural? during this eleventh-century observation, the popular Nyingma (Ancient college) pupil Rongzom Chokyi Zangpo units out his research of the character of purity. This penetrating research, directed in the direction of students and severe practitioners, comprises Koppl's English-language translation of Rongzom's unique textual content and her explication of his perspectives. Koppl's incisive research deals an outline of Rongzom's occupation and works and provides specified cognizance to his critique of Madhyamaka philosophy. a few of Rongzom's methods, Koppl indicates, are unconventional even in a Nyingma context.
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18 a lot of Rongzom’s important Madhyamaka remedies seem to have been misplaced and any conclusions during this sector needs to hence be tentative. 19 Nges shes sgron me’i rtsa ’grel. 20 Dbu ma rgyan gyi rnam bshad ’jam dbyangs bla ma dgyes pa’i zhal lung. when it comes to secondary assets, Pettit’s Mipham research (Pettit: 1999) proved a invaluable reference. 21 Bka’ yang dag pa’i tshad ma las mdo btus. 22 Khri srong lde’u btsan. 23 As for secondary assets, Kapstein’s remedy of Mipham’s 4 rules (Kapstein: 2002) used to be illuminating the following, as used to be Yoshimizu’s examine of the foundations in Indian assets (Yoshimizu: 1996). 24 in keeping with works reminiscent of Mipham’s Survey of the Guhyagarbha Tantra and Do-ngag Tenpay Nyima’s Differentiation of perspectives and Tenets (Lta grub shan ’byed gnad kyi sgron me), and with recourse to Lipman (1992) and Pettit (1999). 25 See Kapstein (1996) for a very good description of those advancements. Atīśa’s major disciple, the layman Drom Tonpa (’Brom ston) (1104-1163) based the Kadampa (Bka’ dam pa) tuition, which was once to workout a deep effect on faith in Tibet as much as the current and hence lengthy after its personal disappearance as a unique culture within the 15th century. The practices of Shijey (zhi byed ) and Choyul (gcod yul ) are acknowledged to have originated from the Indian yogin Phadampa Sangye (Pha dam pa sangs rgyas) and his Tibetan disciple Machig Labdron (Ma cig lab sgron) (ca. 1055-1143). The translator Marpa (Mar pa) (1012-1097) is named the founding father of the Kagyu (Bka’ brgyud ) lineage and because the Tibetan successor to the practices referred to as the Six Doctrines of Nāropa (Na ro chos drug). the lessons of the Shangpa Kagyu (Shang pa Bka’ brgyud ), originating from the Indian yoginī Niguma, have been brought by way of Kyungpo Naljor Tshultrim Gonpo (Khyung po rnal ’byor Tshul khrims mgon po) of Shang (Shangs) (d. ca. 1135). Drogmi Lotsāwa (’Brog mi lo tsā ba) (992-1072) brought the lessons of Lamdrey (Lam ’bras), which have been to turn into the important teachings of the Sakya (Sa skya) institution. Germano reviews in this interval: “The 11th to 12th century witnessed the flowering (and in lots of situations simultaneous withering) of a big number of yogic structures experientially established upon the human physique and claiming to supply entire structures to reach on the final cognizance of Buddhahood. ” (Germano (1994): 303) 26 Pho phrang shi ba’ i ’od. 27 Lha bla ma ye she ’od. 28 See Pettit (1999): 88. 29 On terma (gter ma), see Gyatso (1995) and surgeon (2005). 30 Germano (1994): 269. 31 ’Jam mgon kong sprul. 32 Jamgon Kongtrul bargains a short description of Rongzom’s treasures in his hagiographical survey of the treasure revealers (gter ston). curiously, even supposing Kongtrul notes that Rongzom’s unique treasures now not are extant, he states visionary culture of Rongzom’s revelations used to be revived by way of Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo (’Jam 138 identify ing look anc es as divin e dbyangs mkhyen brtse’i dbang po) (1820-1892).